Note-taking in Preparation for Citation:

When taking notes on a work of literature, it’s a good idea to record the page number, along with each direct quote in its entirety. That way, when asked to use parenthetical citation in a report, you’ll have all the information you need. For example:

Shakespeare Notes

Parenthetical Citation in a Literary Essay:

  1. If the author and title of the work is mentioned in the body of the essay, there’s no need to mention the author or title in the parenthetical citation. Example: In “R.M.S. Titanic,” by Hanson W. Baldwin, it says that “the passengers — most of them — did not know that the Titanic was sinking” (pg. 403).
  2. Also, if the author and title of the literary work being discussed in the essay remain the same from the start of the essay to the end, then you only need to mention the author and title once, usually in the introductory paragraph. From then on, a simple page number can be shown in parentheses, following the direct quote.
  3. If you want to cut a chunk out of a quotation, use an ellipsis to represent the missing words. For example: “To be or not to be: that is the question to die: to sleep” (Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 1, lines 64 and  68). An ellipsis at the end of a quote indicates that the quote ended in the middle of a thought or sentence.
  4. When quoting a character’s speech within a larger narrative, quotation marks within quotation marks are usually shown as a single mark (like an apostrophe). Here’s an example: “‘It’s my first and last battle,’ continued the loud soldier” (Stephen Crane’s The Red Badge of Courage, pg. 30).
  5. Include the act, scene, and line number when quoting a play. For example, this quote is shown as coming from Act 1, Scene 3, lines 287 – 288 in Shakespeare’s Othello: The last thing Brabantio says before Othello leaves for Cyprus is, “Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:/She has deceived her father, and may thee” (1.3.287 – 288).
  6. In poetry, when you quote more than one line, use the “line of poetry ends” symbol to indicate breaks in lines and/or stanzas. For example: The lines, “In this head the all-baffling brain,/In it and below it the makings of heroes” indicate that Whitman saw African Americans as intelligent, heroic human beings (“A Man’s Body at Auction,” lines 8 and 9).
  7. When quoting four lines or more, indent both sides of the quote one inch or ten spaces. Do not use quotation marks for these lengthy quotations. Follow the entire quote with parenthetical citation but no punctuation.

9 11 report quote

8. Avoid putting double punctuation at the end of a literary quotation. For example:

  • Correct: The Pied Piper kept his flute attached to a scarf, as we see in the line, “at the scarf’s end hung a pipe” (“The Pied Piper of Hamelin” by Robert Browning, stanza VI, line 83).
  • Incorrect: The Pied Piper kept his flute attached to a scarf, as we see in the line, “at the scarf’s end hung a pipe.” (“The Pied Piper of Hamelin” by Robert Browning, stanza VI, line 83).

Paraphrasing

  1. Even when you paraphrase, you should give credit to the original author.
  2. Avoid using excessive paraphrased facts in your papers. You look more professional if you make a direct quote.
  3. It’s recommended that you paraphrase when a.) a direct quote can’t prove your thesis as well as your paraphrase can, b.) you have to skip around in the source material to get the facts you want, and/or c.) it’s difficult to integrate the direct quote into your text.
  4. No matter what, you should always stay true to the source material’s original message (paraphrased from [http://www.uhv.edu/StudentSuccessCenter/style/quote.aspx]).

Creating a Works Cited Page

A Few Tips and Pointers:

  • The Works Cited page goes at the very end of your report.
  • Put each entry in alphabetical order, so if you have one entry that starts with the name “Annan” and another entry that starts with the name “Kofi,” the “Annan” entry will come first.
  • Don’t forget to check the titles rules to decide whether your titles need italics or quotation marks.

For World Book or Any Encyclopedia

Example: 

“Annan, Kofi.” World Book Encyclopedia. 2002. Vol. 1, pg. 232.

So Here’s How You Order Your Info:

“Article Title.” Underlined Name of Encyclopedia. Copyright Year. Volume #, pages where found.

For a Wikipedia Article

Example:

“Kofi Annan.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 21 Aug. 2014. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kofi_Annan

So Here’s How You Order Your Info:

“Article Title.” Wikipedia’s Full Company Name Underlined. Date page was last updated. Put the word WEB here followed by a period. Date you found the information. URL

For a Library Book or Any Other Book

Example:

Meisler, Stanley. A Man of Peace in a World of War. New York: Wiley Publications, 2008. Print.

So Here’s How You Order Your Info:

Last Name of Author, First Name. Underlined Title of Book. City of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication. Print.

For a Web Page Other Than Wikipedia

Example:

“Kofi Annan: Biography—Civil Servant.” Bio.com. A & E Television Networks, LLC. 3 April 2014. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kofi_Annan

So Here’s How You Order Your Info:

“Name of Web Article or Blog Post.” Underlined Name of Website. Date page was last updated. The word WEB followed by a period. Date you accessed the information. URL

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